What does Encoding mean?
Encoding is the process of converting data into a format required for a number of information processing needs, including:

Program compiling and execution
Data transmission, storage and compression/decompression
Application data processing, such as file conversion
Encoding can have two meanings:

In computer technology, encoding is the process of applying a specific code, such as letters, symbols and numbers, to data for conversion into an equivalent cipher.
In electronics, encoding refers to analog to digital conversion.